Featured today on Time Warner/NY1 — CODAs of Color, a workshop sponsored by SignTalk Foundation and developed and led by Celeste Owens, NAD V, NIC, provides children of Deaf adults with an introduction and access to the field of sign language interpreting. To see the 2-minute news clip, go to http://bit.ly/29k3d9C.
Many of us see a need and wonder how to do more — to affect something or someone in a positive way. The SignTalk Foundation recently sponsored a six-week program, “A Basic Introduction to Professional Sign Language Interpreting,” for adult and young adult CODAs of Color, led by Nationally Certified Interpreter, Celeste Owens, NAD V, NIC.
The purpose and goal of this program was to introduce, share and enlighten CODAs of Color to the field of professional sign language interpreting. The sessions covered skills required in a variety of interpreting environments, the Code of Professional Conduct and its application in various settings, panel discussions with certified/qualified interpreters who shared their background and experiences, and a session in which members of the SignTalk staff discussed opportunities available to professional interpreters.
As a professional interpreter and CODA of Color herself, Celeste has been a long-time advocate and supporter of the Deaf Community in NYC — particularly the Black-Deaf community. SignTalk is extremely pleased to have partnered with Celeste and provide a grant in support of this six-week workshop series. The feedback from the students has been overwhelmingly positive and we wish them success in the future.
Captioned content is mushrooming! YouTube and Google have long recognized the value of captioning, not only to reach the Deaf and hard of hearing, but for general hearing audiences in different countries, as well as non-English speakers in the US. They have developed an easy to use captioning technology for YouTube posters to add captioning capabilities to their content. As YouTube’s technology can translate into ten languages, its focus is to bridge the gap between languages rather than on the Deaf and hard of hearing community—still, it’s a win for us! YouTube has enabled automatic captioning for 135 million videos, more than tripling the number of captioned videos since 2011.
In 1993, Congress ruled that captioning capabilities must be installed on all analog TVs with screens large than 13 inches. Since then, the law has
been updated to include digital TVs, as well as tablets and phones with much smaller screens. And yet, when a Deaf education teacher wanted to show a PBS movie “Homefront and Warfront: World War II” to her class, she discovered that the movie was not captioned. When she wrote to PBS to inquire as to why they failed to make a historical feature accessible to Deaf and hard of hearing students, PBS responded that this particular content fell outside the timeframe required by the FCC.
The National Association of the Deaf, the country’s leading organization that monitors captions, has sued both Netflix and Amazon because popular content, including the 50th anniversary showing of “The Wizard of Oz” had not been captioned. The courts ruled in favor of Netflix saying that Netflix doesn’t actually have to comply with ADA laws because it isn’t connected to a physical space. Even though they won the suit, Netflix has plans to caption everything, and Amazon currently captions all its Prime content and intends to caption 100% of its digital content. Again, though their focus is not specifically to accommodate the Deaf and hard of hearing communities, but rather to make viewing of Netflix and Amazon stations available in bars and restaurants, this too is a win for us.
Anyone who has watched automatically captioned YouTube videos can give you examples of captioning gone awry, but we trust that, as technology tends to do, this will improve with time. Currently the FCC requires video clips aired on TV to be captioned with 30 days. As of July 2017, captioning will be required within 12 hours. As for “Homefront and Warfront: World War II” as of this writing, it has still not been captioned.
Upon first encountering people communicating in sign language, many hearing people may exclaim enthusiastically, “Oh, ASL is such a beautiful language!” Basically, asking “Can I join?” Interpreters may roll their eyes – after all, speaking in ASL is our profession.
But welcoming potential signers will go a long way in opening up communication between Deaf people and the rest of the hearing population. This is a good thing.
- Interpreters don’t have a monopoly on communication. We aren’t going to lose our jobs if teachers, lawyers, nurses, mechanics, and baristas decide to take an ASL class. Not everyone wants to be an interpreter even if they do want to become youTube stars by interpreting Bruno Mars songs.
- Hearing signers open up communication. We’ve all seen Rebecca King order her frappuccino from Katie Wyble via the Evolution Screen at the St. Augustine, FL Starbucks. What made that interaction possible, along with technology, was hearing signers, not interpreters. Ms. Wyble is one of a handful of signers at that Starbucks. Ms. Wyble was smitten the first time she saw ASL, so she studied it for 4 years. Her studies helped her do her job well and made Ms. King’s day. St. Augustine has a huge signing community as the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind is located there. The large signing community makes it easy for Starbucks to hire signing baristas.
- Native ASL users live among us. ASL differs from other foreign languages in that many non-English speakers may understand sufficient English with which to communicate and may improve their English skills with time. (I took 2 years of high school Russian and have never said more than da or niet to any native user.) But often ASL is the only language accessible to native users. Therefore, ASL students may have the opportunity to interact with Deaf people in their own neighborhood.
- ASL feels accessible to hearing Americans. Unlike other foreign languages, ASL doesn’t threaten English speaking Americans, either because we code it in English or because it’s a manual language. Whatever the case, Americans are willing to take ASL and practice it almost immediately, by approaching complete strangers and awkwardly signing, “H-I. My name is A-M-B-E-R.”
- Signing students have exposure to Deaf culture. Hearing people who become ASL signers will naturally learn much about Deaf culture and to appreciate the Deaf accent. As more people include Deaf people among their community of friends and acquaintances, there will be more acceptance and fewer acts of discrimination, like this one.
So, the next time an eager, potential signer tells you ASL is beautiful, invite them in. A warm response–It is a beautiful language! Learn it!–will go a long way in creating an abundance of recreational signers.
While much of America is obsessing over the meaning (or lack thereof) of Starbucks’ red cup, some of us are focused on Starbucks for a more unifying reason — the great communication leap forward.
Rebecca King, a Deaf Starbucks patron, pulled up to her local St. Augustine, Florida Starbucks’ drive-thru window expecting the usual struggles communicating through a kiosk. She was shocked–and ecstatic–when a signing employee appeared on an Evolution Screen.
This is the first known Starbucks to install an Evolution Screen, in which an interpreter communicates with the driver on the screen if they haven’t responded within a certain amount of time.
Be one of the 6 million plus people to view Ms. King easily ordering her Frappuccino in sign language.
The St. Augustine Starbucks employs a handful of signers as the town hosts a large Deaf and signing community, as well as the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind. ASL is offered at many of the local high schools and colleges.
Not all Starbucks are as accommodating as St. Augustine’s. In 2013, two New York City Starbucks made Deaf News Today and The New York Times by refusing to serve Deaf customers, making fun of the Deaf accent, and even calling the police to remove Deaf patrons. The Deaf patrons sued Starbucks. Starbucks responded quickly in print and video reiterating that all customers, including Deaf customers, should feel welcome and enjoy the Starbucks Experience.
Indeed, what happened in New York City seems to be an anomaly. Starbucks has a history of hiring Deaf employees in many of their stores, from South Korea to Santa Monica, CA. Starbucks is an active participant in RIT’s Coop Program, which offers internships to Deaf college students and hires many of them. According to this video, there are 5 Deaf employees at the Starbucks headquarters in Seattle, WA and Starbucks actively meets all of their communication needs.
Of course, an Evolution Screen isn’t practical for all fast food restaurants, nor do all restaurants have easy access to signing employees. To help facilitate communication, Starbucks also stocks picture cards so any customer can point to the drink of their choice and size without a struggle.
We hope other restaurants and coffee shops will follow suit and install drive-thru touch screens, making it easier for everyone to place accurate orders.
Great job, Starbucks. I raise my red cup to you.
The Power of the Educational Interpreter
Let’s talk about your power as an educational interpreter. “I only facilitate communication,” you say, hiding behind your hands. “I don’t have any real power.” Be honest. Next time admit, “I facilitate communication and impact, for better or worse, all situations I interpret.” One example of what comes after the ‘and’ is what we’ll discuss today.
As an educational interpreter you have duties outside of classroom interpreting which include interpreting impromptu meetings between students and non-signing staff. Today, you’ve just been asked to escort a student to the Senior Advisor’s office so she can ask for her money back as she decided not to go to prom.
You’ve known this student for 3 ½ years now. You know she’s never been in trouble, is very polite to adults, and tends to be shy. You also know the Senior Advisor and that she works well with the teenagers in the building including the deaf students. You also know that the Deaf Services office has a good working relationship with the Senior Advisor office. The meeting should take 5 minutes and be painless.
Yet, have you considered that you could create tension in this situation? One goal of the Deaf Services office is for the seniors to be more independent. Is now the time you’ll let your student advocate for herself? Will you let the student struggle to ask for her money back, or will you lead the narrative? Will you nurture the relationship between the Deaf Services office and the Senior Advisor office, or will you Deaf Pride the place down? Will you voice aggressively? Passively? What kind of comments will you make to your deaf student while the senior advisor is processing her request? How about after you leave the office? These are the questions you should be considering on your walk to the Senior Advisor’s office.
The deaf student leads you into the Senior Advisor’s office. She signs, “Hi.” Then she smiles and looks at you and looks at the senior advisor and she shrugs nervously and signs very small and very fast, “money. I-don’t know. Whatever.” And not ‘whatever’ with and attitude, but ‘whatever’ like, “nevermind. I want to leave.” Then she turns bright red.
You voice, “Hi. Its great to see you again. Um, I hate to ask, but could I have the money for prom back because it turns out I can’t go. Is that ok?” You’ve stayed true to your student’s voice and intent but you added a lot of words and basically took over the entire conversation. Is that right or wrong? The senior advisor happily processes the refund because the student asked politely and she had a pleasant interaction with you. The senior advisor has also had one more positive interaction with your office. You created a great outcome. Just consider the expense. Your student is no more independent now than when she walked into the office.
Option #2–Interpret literally
You voice, “Hi, um can I get my money back. Or, I don’t know. Whatever.” You’ve stayed true to the student’s words and perhaps her voice and intent. But, the senior advisor is unnecessarily confused. Even the toughest kids have enter her office with courtesy and provide explanations for their requests. Your student will still get her money back, but the senior advisor will be left with a bad taste in her mouth. She will be wondering why this deaf student was rude today when she never had been before. Or, she’ll assume all the diva interpreters in the Deaf Services office are too big for their britches. You awkwardly forced your power onto a deaf student who didn’t want it, put your student in a bad light, and broke down communication avenues between offices.
Option #3–Prep with your student
On your walk to the Senior Advisor office you ask your student why she is going to the office. (Who cares if you already know. Ask anyhow. You’ll be surprised what you learn.) Next ask your student if she wants to ask herself or if she wants you to interpret. Again, you may be surprised. You walk into the Senior Advisor office with your student and she sign, “Hi.” She looks at you and looks at the senior advisor and then continues, “I can’t go to prom. Can I get my money back?” This is the sweet and polite student your senior advisor knows. Of course she can get her money back and of course she loves working with the Deaf Services office.
Obviously, there are more than three ways this scenario could have played out. My point is: you impact the result of the interaction. For good or bad, you’re part of the equation. Use your power to facilitate communication, yes! But don’t ignore the side effects of that power. Harness your power for a positive outcome.
Ethical Choices: Educational Sign Language Interpreters as Change Agents http://www.streetleverage.com/2013/04/ethical-choices-educational-sign-language-interpreters-as-change-agents/
What is the Role of the Educational Interpreter? http://www.classroominterpreting.org/Parents/Role.asp
You Are Not a Teacher
By Amber Ceffalio, NIC
Last time we discussed the vast array of interpreting models an educational interpreter toggles through each day. Now, let’s discuss what an educational interpreter does not do.
You are not a teacher.
Yes, you’ll take on minor roles in which you impart information. Your student, for example, might ask you–not wanting to ask the teacher–if the next step in the math problem is to divide. OK, go ahead and answer their question.
Confirming for the student that they’re on the right path is different than big picture teaching. Here is where the roles of teaching and interpreting diverge.
A Teacher’s Role
Teachers have responsibilities that interpreters don’t have. Teachers walk into their classroom each day with specific information they wish to impart. Teachers prepare, teach, and assess the students’ understanding of that lesson. Teachers may adjust their lessons based on their assessment of a students’ comprehension.
On top of that, teachers enforce the rules of the school and are held accountable to the school administration.
An Interpreter’s Role
Interpreters interpret the teacher’s lesson. The interpreter assesses the Deaf students’ understanding of the interpretation, which is subtly, but vitally, different from the teacher assessing the students’ understanding of content.
Ideally the interpreter will be familiar with the content and know the teacher’s goals. But, an interpreter walks into the classroom with less preparation and less responsibility than the teacher.
Outside of interpreting, freelance interpreters aren’t accountable to the school administration. Yes, the interpreter is another adult in the room and needs to behave as such. Yes, the interpreter is a mandated reporter and the health and well-being of a student trumps the Professional Code of Conduct. But, the contracted interpreter isn’t necessarily mindful of the bureaucratic process of handing out bathroom passes while the teacher is. However, one must keep in mind that interpreters employed by the school district need to follow school district rules and protocol.
Complementing the Teaching Process
Interpreters can enhance or hinder the teaching and learning process.
1. First, the interpreter needs to be prepared for class. That may mean the interpreter is reading (or re-reading) To Kill A Mockingbird with the English class. It may mean that the interpreter is researching online what the chemical makeup of sugar looks like so she can interpret the information visually. This is baseline work.
2. Second, the interpreter has some information the teacher doesn’t have. How the interpreter uses this information will either be beneficial or detrimental to the teaching process. Because the interpreter is always looking at the student in order to assess if the student understood the interpretation, the interpreter sometimes catches information the teacher doesn’t.
For example, I was interpreting in a contained math classroom. The teacher was trying to teach a specific concept that was needed to understand future concepts. Frustrated because she’d been trying to get this information across in multiple ways, the teacher asked, “Do you get it now?” Frustrated because she’d been trying to understand but couldn’t, the student nodded. But, when the teacher turned to write the new lesson on the board, the student made a face that told me she didn’t understand the material at all.
What are my options? I’m part of the educational team, but I’m not the teacher. The teacher took the student at her word but not understanding to content now will hurt her later. I felt that the student was almost there and if the material was told one more time in a slightly different way, the student would get it. Yet, I’m not the teacher. I don’t want to be the teacher. And, I don’t want to undermine the teacher.
My solution was to sim-com, “Maybe I didn’t interpret that clearly. Did you mean that XYZ = ZYX?” With that, the teacher looked at me, looked at the student, understood exactly what was happening and said, “Yes, XYZ = ZYX and here is why…”.
Problems Come Up
That particular situation worked out because I approached the problem as if I was the weakest link in the educational chain. It also worked because the teacher didn’t have an ego to get around. We both shared a common goal.
Yet, we interpreters have a little bit of diva in us. (Raise your hand if you’ve ever thought, “I know more than this teacher.” We all have our hands up now.)
There are times I’ve crossed the line. The teacher usually points out these times with a sigh or an, “Ok, and getting back to my point…”.
Don’t take over the classroom. Defer to the teacher. She’s the one in charge and she’s the one who will ultimately answer to the school principal.
Let’s crowd source educational interpreting. I illustrated one solution to one situation. I’m curious what other interpreters have done. In the comments, please tell us what you’ve done when you’ve noticed a student didn’t understand content but the teacher was moving on with the lesson. Let us know as much information about your situation as you can without compromising confidentiality. Was it was a mainstream or a contained classroom? What grade level? Did you have a rapport with the teacher? The more tools we share with each other, the better we’ll all be as educational interpreters.
Terps Up! Amber
Educational Interpreters: Who We Are and What We Do
by Amber Ceffalio, NIC
Before the start of each school year, NYC educational interpreters gather to review interpreting policies and procedures. Beth Prevor, Director of the Office of Sign Language Interpreting Services, mentioned during the meeting that she likes to give us educational interpreters, “the freedom to do what we do.” She added, “And that turns out to be a lot more than just interpreting.”
This column will explore what “a lot more than just interpreting” actually means.
Even though we do “a lot more than just interpreting”, most of the work we do is within our interpreting models. In fact, it’s not a stretch to say that an educational interpreter will use all of the models in any given day.
Let’s take a short walk through how an interpreter might use our models. Obviously, there are many more ways each model might be employed.
Helper: Interpreter acts as a tutor, either formally or informally.
Conduit: Interpreter voices everything the deaf student signs, even if the deaf student doesn’t want you to.
Communication Facilitator: Interpreter understands the goal of the student and expresses it in such a way that the teacher understands what the student needs, even though the student didn’t know how to express their own needs.
Bilingual-Bicultural: Interpreter provides mainstream teachers with materials including information on how to set up closed captions.
Ally: Interpreter escorts the deaf student to the front office and helps the student ask for a special request. The interpreter ends up being more than an interpreter as she leads her student’s questions.
Educational Team: Interpreters have access to information that teachers don’t have and it’s their responsibility to share that information with the appropriate people.
These are snapshots of situations when it’s ethically responsible to employ the various interpreting models. Educational interpreters don’t have the luxury of simply being a Communication Facilitator. Educational interpreters need to deftly and ethically toggle between the models to provide appropriate interpreting services in any given situation.
Other parts of “a lot more than just interpreting” land outside of our models. We are language models, for example. We share information necessary information with teachers. We are a confidants and sometimes informants.
What we do as educational interpreters is difficult to discuss in hypothetical generalizations. So, this column will open each week with a situation. We will use the situation to explore what we do, why we do it, and what options we have to make better informed decisions.
This isn’t, though, us laying down the educational interpreting law. We want you to participate. Please, leave your thoughts in the comments. What would you do in a given situation and why? We’d like a healthy and respectful discussion on educational interpreting.
Do you have a situation you’d like to discuss? Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. We’ll remove identifying characteristics in order to keep identities confidential. Yet we’ll make the situation specific enough so we can agree on the parameters.
Happy terping! Amber
Click here for more information on sign language interpreter models.
More on classroom interpreting here.
“IN THAT SPACE, WE ARE THERE”: John Lee Clark’s Where I Stand: On the Signing Community and My DeafBlind Experience.
“IN THAT SPACE, WE ARE THERE”: John Lee Clark’s Where I Stand: On the Signing Community and My DeafBlind Experience. A reflection by T. K. Dalton
John Lee Clark opens his brilliant essay collection Where I Stand with a burst of poetry: “As a DeafBlind person, standing for me is almost never about being still or in one place.” He describes waiting for a bus, marking time with his feet in order to observe his surroundings. Communication intensifies this habit, he writes, especially when that dialogue is between DeafBlind people: “I would always find myself emerging from an engrossing conversation standing in a different place.” Interpreters who read Clark’s collection may finish the book with a similar reaction. On any given workday, a freelancer can encounter a hearing consumer with no knowledge of ASL, followed by another who views deafness as a medical malady, then by and a third with deep knowledge of the culture, all before lunchtime. Clark’s essays show an equally impressive span, offering insight in equal measure to community insiders, newcomers and novices, and complete outsiders. As skilled an essayist as he is a poet, he deftly adjusts each argument–”Does Disability Really Need to be Fixed?”, “A Cochlear Implant Thought Experiment,” “Why Hearing Parents Don’t Sign”–to match its audience and, importantly, to challenge the assumptions that audience might hold. His work isn’t “for hearing people only,” either. Clark writes one of the clearest explorations of why people “quit” the Deaf community I have ever encountered in “Great Expectations,” an essay that grows to pose a universal question of what any community can and cannot do for its members.
Like any great collection of ideas, these live beyond the printed page. One essay, “An Open Letter to American Heritage Dictionary”, led to an actual revision of the newly-added term “audism.” Another excellent piece, “ASL and the Star-Spangled Banner”, has also resonated with Deaf audiences. The remarkable re-thinking of the national anthem as a more accurate and contextualized visual narrative led to this amazing re-rendition by the Rocky Mountain Deaf School. The translator team of fourth and fifth graders also produced an impressive self-analysis. Here, and throughout Where I Stand, Clark brings attention to language as both a means to social justice for his community and as an aesthetic end worthy on its own. He is, after all, a poet. The insights into community life should make the collection required reading for anyone involved in the Deaf-World. But interpreters, after all, are language people, and Clark’s thoughts on poetry in English and in ASL will invigorate anyone who cares about language. He devotes a whole essay to Paul Hostovsky, a talented poet who works as an interpreter. In an essay that appeared in the prestigious magazine POETRY, Clark reviews two centuries of poetry by American Deaf people. (He edited the groundbreaking anthology Deaf American Poetry as well as, in the interest of disclosure, the anthology Deaf Lit Extravaganza, to which I contributed fiction.) Clark compares the brilliance of performed ASL poetry to the dearth of recorded ASL literature, and pithily diagnoses the latter with a “movie problem.” The lack of ASL literature, he argues, stems from the medium itself, and the ingrown problem that performed video differs fundamentally from written text. A written text, he writes, “creates space for us to say things as ourselves. And it creates space, when we are reading it, to fall into that text. In that space, we are there. And that’s how ASL literature will finally get there, too.” Theorizing about the medium of a message could quickly become overly abstract. To Clark, though, medium is a message. One crucial meta-message reflects his experience of (in)accessible media. On one extreme, he writes comically about his thwarted attempts to abandon heavy Braille issues of magazines in “All the Things I Can’t Leave Behind.” Conversely, the lack of these heavy tomes leads him to pose “A Question That’s Harder Than It Should Be”: Should Clark-the-poet send his work to magazines that Clark-the-reader cannot, well, read? The aforementioned POETRY magazine, Clark says, is the only poetry journal to offer hard-copy issues in Braille. (Anyone, then, can read his poem “My Understanding One Day of Fox Gloves.”) Where I Stand closes with essays on the author’s particular DeafBlind experiences, and these are the most moving, the most personal. While Pro-Tactile and Skyways and changing attitudes make this “an exciting time to be DeafBlind”, our age is not perfect. “I Didn’t Marry Annie Sullivan” debunks the assumptions Clark confronts regarding his personal life, and “Unreasonable Effort” rails against the institutional challenges faced by DeafBlind college students. Throughout the collection, Clark slaloms gracefully through his arguments’ logic. He extols writers with disabilities to write about people with disabilities. He parodies ‘people first’ language where a DeafBlind character struggled to run an errand at a social service agency where the new red tape is the zealous application by staff of politically correct terminology. Clark describes his school for the Deaf in exquisite detail in a piece that first appeared in Deaf Lit Extravaganza. This piece shows the subtlety that is Clark the essayist at his best. Clark’s vision has changed over time, and those changes permeate the piece powerfully. Deaf schools, of course, have unrivaled importance in the formative experiences of many Deaf people. For Clark, the beauty of the Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf “encouraged [him] to use a cane and retire [his] eyes to a life of leisure.” This particular place, remembered by this particular author, exists in memory only. This is true for any alumna, but the nostalgia takes on a potent edge, because this is a place the remember-er can no longer see. But the embedded power is this: the speaker forgoes eyesight, overrules its necessity, using language and memory to share with everyone his vision. To learn more about John Lee Clark go to: www.johnleeclark.com For more information on the blogger visit: www.tkdalton.com/
The beauty of ASL is seen clearly in the hands of the young.
Whether it’s identifying a duck in the water or relating signs of the season, we can see the simplicity and clarity of language in motion.
We look to the experts for language modeling when sometimes the beauty lies in the hands of the innocent.
Photo contributions from Amber Ceffalio & Susanne Morgan Morrow